Vulnerability in dynamically driven oscillatory networks and power grids


Vulnerability of networks has so far been quantified mainly for structural properties. In driven systems, however, vulnerability intrinsically relies on the collective response dynamics. As shown recently, dynamic response patterns emerging in driven oscillator networks and AC power grid models are highly heterogeneous and nontrivial, depending jointly on the driving frequency, the interaction topology of the network, and the node or nodes driven. Identifying which nodes are most susceptible to dynamic driving and may thus make the system as a whole vulnerable to external input signals, however, remains a challenge. Here, we propose an easy-to-compute Dynamic Vulnerability Index (DVI) for identifying those nodes that exhibit largest amplitude responses to dynamic driving signals with given power spectra and thus are most vulnerable. The DVI is based on linear response theory, as such generic, and enables robust predictions. It thus shows potential for a wide range of applications across dynamically driven networks, for instance, for identifying the vulnerable nodes in power grids driven by fluctuating inputs from renewable energy sources and fluctuating power output to consumers.

Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science